Glossary


A
Abdominoplasty
A surgical procedure, also known as tummy tuck, to correct the apron of excess skin hanging over your abdomen
Antihelical fold
A fold that is just inside the rim of the ear
Arborizing veins
eins that resemble tiny, branch-like shapes in a cartwheel pattern, often seen on the outer thigh
Areola
Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
Auditory canal
A passage in the ear
Augmentation Mammaplasty
Breast enlargement by surgery

B
Basal cell carcinoma
The most common form of skin cancer. Occurs in the epidermis. These growths are often round and pearly or darkly pigmented
Bilateral gynecomastia
A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting both breasts in men
Biocompatible materials
Synthetic or natural material used in facial implants and designed to function along with living tissue
Blepharoplasty
Eyelid surgery to improve the appearance of upper eyelids, lower eyelids or both
Brachioplasty
A surgical procedure, also known as arm lift, to correct sagging of the upper arms
Breast augmentation
Also known as augmentation mammaplasty; breast enlargement by surgery
Breast lift
Also known as mastopexy; surgery to lift the breasts
Breast reconstruction
Breast reconstruction is achieved through several plastic surgery techniques that attempt to restore a breast to near normal shape, appearance and size following mastectomy.
Breast reduction
Reduction of breast size and breast lift by surgery
Brow lift
A surgical procedure to correct a low-positioned or sagging brow. Smoothes furrows across the forehead and between the brows

C
Cancer
The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells
Capsular contracture
A complication of breast implant surgery which occurs when scar tissue that normally forms around the implant tightens and squeezes the implant and becomes firm.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A condition caused by pressure to the median nerve within the wrist or carpal tunnel causing pain, tingling and numbness
Cheiloplasty
Cleft lip repair surgery
Cheiloschisis
The scientific term for a cleft lip
Chemical peel solutions
Substances that penetrate the skin’s surface to soften irregularities in texture and color
Circumferential thigh lift
A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the outer and mid-thigh
Cleft
A separation of the upper lip and/or the roof of the mouth
Cleft lip
The incomplete formation of the upper lip
Cleft palate
The incomplete formation of the roof of the mouth
Collagen
A natural protein found in our tissues and also used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation
Columella
Tissue that separates the nostrils
Conchal cartilage
The largest and deepest concavity of the external ear
Constricted ear
Also called a lop or cup ear, has varying degrees of protrusion, reduced ear circumference, folding or flattening of the upper helical rim, and lowered ear position
Contracture
A puckering or pulling together of tissues; a potential side effect of surgery
Contractures
Scars that restrict movement due to skin and underlying tissue that pull together during healing and usually occur when there is a large amount of tissue loss, such as after a burn
Cryptotia
Also called hidden ear, occurs when the upper rim of the ear is buried beneath a fold of scalp secondary to abnormal folding of the upper ear cartilage toward the head. The folding is the reverse of that commonly seen in the protruding ear

D
Dermabrasion
Mechanical polishing of the skin
DIEP flap
Deep Inferior Epigastric perforator flap which takes tissue from the abdomen
Donor site
An area of your body where the surgeon harvests skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct your breast - commonly located in less exposed areas of the body such as the back, abdomen or buttocks
Dupuytren’s contracture
A disabling hand disorder in which thick, scar-like tissue bands form within the palm and may extend into the fingers. It can cause restricted movement, bending the fingers into an abnormal position

E
Ear axis
The main line of ear growth
Endocrine system
A group of glands that make hormones which help to control activities in your body such as reproduction, metabolism, growth and development. Testing of your endocrine system may be done to look for signs of diabetes, thyroid disorders, growth hormone deficiency, osteoporosis, hypertension and obesity
Epidermis
The uppermost portion of skin
Excision
To remove the skin
Extensor tendon
A tendon which serves to extend a bodily part
External incisions
Surgical incisions made on the surface of your skin

F
Flap techniques
Surgical techniques used to reposition your own skin, muscle and fat to reconstruct or cover your breast
Flexor tendon
A tendon which serves to bend a body part
Frozen section
A surgical procedure in which the cancerous lesion is removed and microscopically examined by a pathologist prior to wound closure to ensure all cancerous cells have been removed

G
General anesthesia
Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness
Grafting
Tissue taken from other parts of the body

H
Hematoma
Blood pooling beneath the skin
Hemoglobin
Blood count
Human fat
Harvested from your own body and used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation
Hyfrecation
Spider vein treatment in which the vessels are cauterized.
Hyperpigmented scar
A scar that is darker in color
Hypertropic scar
Thick clusters of scar tissue that develop directly at a wound site
Hypopigmented scar
A scar that is lighter in color

I
Injectable fillers
Substances used to restore volume and your youthful appearance
Intraoral
Inside the mouth
Intraoral incisions
Surgical incisions made inside the mouth
Intravenous sedation
Sedatives are administered by injection into a vein to help you relax

K
Keloids
Large scars that can be painful or itchy, and may also pucker which can occur anywhere on your body, developing more commonly where there is little underlying fatty tissue, such as on the breastbone or shoulders

L
Laser resurfacing
A method to change to the surface of the skin that allows new, healthy skin to form at the scar site
Laser therapy
An intense beam of light passed over the skin to treat discoloration, prominent blood vessels or unwanted hair

Latissimus dorsi flap technique
A surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin tunneled under the skin and tissue of a woman's back to the reconstructed breast and remains attached to its donor site, leaving blood supply intact
Light therapy
(Intense Pulsed Light) Pulses of light that can be used to treat discoloration and texture changes of the skin
Lipoplasty
Another term for liposuction
Liposuction
Also called lipoplasty or suction lipectomy, this procedure vacuums out fat from beneath the skin’s surface to reduce fullness
Local anesthesia
A drug is injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain
Local flap
A surgical procedure used for skin cancer or in trauma in which healthy, adjacent tissue is repositionedover the wound
Lower body lift
Surgical procedure to correct sagging of the abdomen, buttocks, groin, and outer thighs

M
Macrotia
Overly large ears; a rare condition
Mammogram
An x-ray image of the breast
Mastectomy
The removal of a breast, typically to rid the body cancer
Medial thigh lift
A surgical procedure to correct sagging of the inner thigh
Melanoma
A skin cancer that is most often distinguished by its pigmented blackish or brownish coloration and irregular and ill-defined borders is the most serious form of skin cancer. It occurs in the deepest portion of the epidermis, and for this reason, melanoma is the most likely form of skin cancer to spread quickly in the skin and to other parts of the body
Microsurgery
High magnification to repair or reconnect severed nerves and tendons, common in trauma cases and often used to reattach severed fingers or limbs
Microtia
The most complex congenital ear deformity when the outer ear appears as either a sausage-shaped structure resembling little more than the earlobe, or has more recognizable parts of the concha and tragus or other normal ear features. It may or may not be missing the external auditory or hearing canal. Hearing is impaired to varying degrees
Mohs surgery
A surgical procedure that’s used when skin cancer is like an iceberg. Beneath the skin, the cancerous cells cover a much larger region and there are no defined borders
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging; a painless test to view tissue similar to an x-ray

N
Nasolabial fold
Deep creases between the nose and mouth
Nevi
A mole

O
Obturator
An intraoral device your child may wear prior to repair of the cleft lip which may assist in feeding and maintain the arch of the lip prior to repair
Otoplasty
A surgical procedure also known as ear surgery to improve the shape, position or proportion of the ear

P
Palatoschisis
The scientific term for a cleft palate
PMMA
A widely used implant material formed into tiny microspheres and suspended in a collagen gel for use as a wrinkle filler
Polydactyly
The presence of extra fingers

R
Reduction Mammaplasty
The surgical removal of breast tissue to reduce the size of breasts
Reticular veins
Larger, darker leg veins that tend to bulge slightly, but are not severe enough to require surgical treatment
Rheumatoid arthritis
A disabling disease that can cause severe inflammation in any joint of the body. In the hand, it can deform fingers and impair movement
Rhytidectomy
A surgical procedure, also known as face lift, to reduce sagging of the mid-face, jowls and neck

S
Saline implants
Breast implants filled with a salt water solution
Sclerotherapy
Sclerosing solution injected into a vein, causing it to collapse and fade from view
SGAP flap
Superior Gluteal Artery perforator flap, which takes tissue from the buttock
Silicone implants
Breast implants filled with an elastic gel solution
Simple Linear Veins
Veins which appear as thin, separate lines, and are commonly seen on the inner knee or on the face
Skin graft
A surgical procedure used for skin cancer. Healthy skin is removed from one area of the body and relocated to the wound site. A suture line is positioned to follow the natural creases and curves of the face if possible, to minimize the appearance of the resulting scar
Skin Resurfacing
Treatment to improve the texture, clarity and overall appearance of your skin
Soft tissue augmentation
The use of injectable fillers to restore volume and your youthful appearance
Spider-shaped Veins
A group of veins radiating outward from a dark central point
Spider Veins
Small clusters of red, blue or purple veins that appear in the skin on the thighs, calves and ankles
Stahl’s ear
An ear that is distorted in shape due to an abnormal fold of cartilage
Suction Lipectomy
Another term for liposuction
Support Hose
Special stockings that compress your legs, typically used for varicose veins and post-surgical conditions
Sutures
Stitches used by surgeons to hold skin and tissue together
Syndactyly
When fingers are fused together

T
Tendon
A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part
Tenolysis
A surgical procedure to free a tendon from surrounding adhesions
Tissue Expansion
A procedure that can substitute for skin grafts. An inflatable balloon called a tissue expander is placed under the skin near the scar site to stretch additional skin to be used to revise a scar. Oftentimes, multiple procedures are needed
TRAM Flap
Also known as transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap, a surgical technique that uses muscle, fat and skin from your own abdomen to reconstruct the breast
Transaxillary Incision
An incision made in the underarm area
Trigger Finger
An abnormal condition in which flexion or extension of a finger may be momentarily obstructed by spasm followed by a snapping into place
Tumescent or super-wet liposuction
Requires an infusion of saline solution with adrenaline and possibly anesthetic prior to removal of excess fat
Tummy tuck
A surgical procedure to correct the apron of excess skin hanging over your abdomen

U
Unilateral Gynecomastia
A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts affecting just one breast in men
Ultrasound
A diagnostic procedure that projects high-frequency sound waves into the body and changes the echoes into pictures
Ultrasound-Assisted Lipoplasty
Uses ultrasonic energy to liquefy excess fat prior to surgical suctioning

V
Varicose Veins
Abnormally swollen or dilated veins
Venous system
Veins

Z
Z-plasty
A surgical incision technique that creates small triangular flaps of tissue that help to close wounds over areas of the hand where bending or flexing is essential to function, such as around knuckles
Z-plasty for Scar Revision
A surgical technique that creates angled flaps on either side of the original scar site that can completely reposition or change scar direction, interrupt scar tension or improve scar flexibility